By Gerald Kelly
Книга how one can train Pronunciation (Book with Audio CD) the way to train Pronunciation (Book with Audio CD) Книги Иностранные языки Автор: Gerald Kelly Год издания: 2001 Формат: pdf Издат.:Pearson ESL Страниц: one hundred sixty Размер: 15 + 21,7 ISBN: 0582429757 Язык: Английский fifty one (голосов: 2) Оценка:Reader's review:Like such a lot books within the "How to.." sequence, corresponding to tips to educate Grammar (How To...), "How to educate Pronunciation" via Gerald Kelly is an amazing booklet for academics short of a few suggestion and enter at the zone of pronunciation. The ebook has numerous chapters on diverse elements. It starts off with the fundamentals, (vowel and consonant sounds), and builds as much as intonation and attached speech. There are very good chapters on tension, sentence tension and extra. each bankruptcy has pattern classes that illustrate a few nice principles for instructing. they're all very adaptable. The publication has a few first-class theoretical elements, giving principles for attached speech and so forth, for instance. the idea is particularly transparent, can provide an outstanding run down at the terminology and retains all of it very genuine. The ebook quite used to be written for the operating instructor. identifying this one or Sound Foundations (Teacher improvement) is a tricky name. i might are likely to choose either, as they've got either bought a few severe benefits over one another. both method, i discovered this ebook an outstanding resource of latest course, new readability and new concentrate on the ever-present pronunciation blues. completely steered!
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Additional info for How To Teach Pronunciation (Book with Audio CD)
Variation Theory • 19 A diﬀerent kind of objection to variable rules was raised by Derek Bickerton (1971), the eminent creolist. e. standard grammatical rules and variable rules), but also some kind of recognition device to tell the speaker whether to interpret a particular set of data as rule-plus-exceptions or as area-of-variability. When we recall that the data on which non-variable rules are based is often incomplete and heterogeneous, the mode of operation of such a device must seem somewhat mysterious.
Quoted in Sankoﬀ and Labov, 1979, p. 203) Sankoﬀ and Labov (1979) also pointed out that many studies employing variable rules were speciﬁcally aimed at discovering which individuals and groups within a community shared which rules and which constraints. For example, in their study of South Harlem teenagers, Labov, Cohen, Robins, and Lewis (1968) constructed a single variable rule for /t,d/ deletion only after analyzing the data from each of their subjects individually. Because these were early days in variation studies, the researchers were surprised to ﬁnd that their subjects shared the same constraints and the same constraint ordering.
For example, words ending in -ing, such as running and darling, have an informal pronunciation (runnin’, darlin’) as well as a formal pronunciation. As we will see in chapter 2, studies (Cofer, 1972; Houston, 1985) have found that middle-class speakers and women use the formal variant more often than working-class speakers and men. Perhaps the most studied example of socially patterned variation involves the deletion of the sounds /t/ and /d/ when they occur in a consonant cluster in word ﬁnal position, so that the words mist and buzzed are pronounced mis’ and buzz’.