By edited by F. Smarandache & V. Christianto
The current booklet covers a wide-range of matters from replacement hadron versions to their most probably implications to New strength learn, together with replacement interpretation of low-energy response (coldfusion) phenomena. The authors explored a few new ways to explain novel phenomena in particle physics. M Pitkanen introduces his nuclear string speculation derived from his Topological Geometrodynamics thought, whereas E. Goldfain discusses a few nonlinear dynamics tools, together with bifurcation, trend formation (complex Ginzburg-Landau equation) to explain effortless particle plenty. Fu Yuhua discusses a believable process for prediction of phenomena with regards to New strength improvement. F. Smarandache discusses his unmatter speculation, and A. Yefremov et al. speak about Yang-Mills box from Quaternion area Geometry. Diego Rapoport discusses hyperlink among Torsion fields and Hadronic Mechanic. A.H. Phillips discusses semiconductor nanodevices, whereas V. and A. Boju talk about electronic Discrete and Combinatorial tools and their most probably implications to New strength learn. Pavel Pintr et al. describe planetary orbit distance from converted SchrÃ¶dinger equation, and M. Pereira discusses his new Hypergeometrical description of normal version of basic debris. the current quantity might be appropriate for researchers attracted to New strength concerns, particularly their hyperlink with replacement hadron types and interpretation. whereas a few of these discussions should be chanced on a piece too theoretical, our view is that when those phenomena will be placed into rigorous theoretical framework, thereafter extra 'open-minded' physicists will be extra able to give some thought to those New power equipment extra heavily. Our uncomplicated proposition within the current booklet is that contemplating those new theoretical insights, you can actually anticipate there are new tips on how to generate New strength applied sciences that are basically nearby of human wisdom within the coming years.
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Additional resources for Hadron models and related new energy issues
07 MeV per nucleon of alpha particle. 06 MeV < EB (4 He) supports the interpretation as a composite of alpha particles. 78 MeV for Fe. This encourages to consider the possibility that alpha particle acts as a fundamental composite of nuclear strings with minimum number of lighter isotopes guaranteing correct neutron number. 8 MeV per nucleon is present. , 10, for which EB is larger than for 4 He. For the first four nuclei EB has a local maximum as function of N . For the remaining the maximum of EB is obtained for (Z, Z + 1).
3 He is the only possible candidate as the only stable nucleus with N < Z. 57 MeV). Individual nucleons are also possible in principle but not favored. This together with increase of Coulomb interaction energy per nucleon due to the greater density of em charge per string length would explain their smaller binding energy and instability. 3 Formula for binding energy per nucleon as a test for the model The study of 8 B inspires the hypothesis that the total binding energy for the nucleus (Z1 + Z2 , N1 + N2 ) is in the first approximation the sum of total binding energies of composites so that one would have for the binding energy per nucleon the prediction EB = A2 A1 × EB1 + × EB2 A1 + A2 A1 + A2 in the case of 2-nucleus composite.
Ii) 48 T i could not involve tetra-neutron by this criterion. It indeed allows decomposition to standard nuclei is also possible as 48 T i = (22, 26) =41 K +7 Li. iii) The heaviest stable T i isotope would have the decomposition 50 T i =46 T i +4 n, where 46 T i is the lightest stable T i isotope. c) The heavier stable nuclei 50+k V = (23, 27 + k), k = 0, 1, 52+k Cr = (24, 28+k), k = 0, 1, 2, 55 M n = (25, 30) and 56+k F e = (26, 30+k), k = 0, 1, 2 would have similar interpretation. The stable isotopes 50 Cr = (24, 26) and 54 F e = (26, 28) would not contain tetra-neutron.