From Meta-Ethics to Ethics An Overview of R. M. Hare’s Moral by Eleni M. Kalokairinou

By Eleni M. Kalokairinou

This publication brings out the best way the 20 th century thinker R. M. Hare has tried to damage the impasse to which his modern ethical theories were led, i.e. irrationalism and relativism. Taking his aspect of departure from those theories, he means that the logical principles we succeed in from the linguistic research of ethical language may have implications at the normative point, which of their shape are in contract with the primary of software. So he differs from his modern philosophers simply because he argues that we interact in ethical philosophy for you to clarifying and fixing the sensible difficulties we are facing in existence. during this feel he's an ardent defender of the sensible relevance of philosophy. Hare’s ethical account is heavily analyzed during this publication and his major theses are demonstrated not just for inner coherence but additionally for his or her capability to withstand all rational feedback.

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Additional means may be required. In other words, as it would be a mistake to claim that the meaning of the indicative sen37 Op. , p. 94 ff. 28 FROM META-ETHICS TO ETHICS tences lies on the perlocutionary level and is to make people believe something; it is also a mistake to say that the meaning of the imperative sentences is to make people do something. In both cases, as in all cases of meaningful language, the meaning is to be sought on the illocutionary level, in the kind of act we are doing in saying something.

Pidgen puts it, “Thus semantic autonomy, which says that moral words do not mean the same as any others, does not entail ontological autonomy – that moral properties are not identical with any others”. e. the semantic or analytic Naturalistic theories. Hare has not only spent a lot of time and paper to dispose of these new forms of ethical Naturalism, but he has also argued that he prefers to shed light on the differences between Naturalism and the other Non-Naturalistic forms of Descriptivism in terms of their truth conditions 26 so as to refute both, traditional and new style Naturalism.

The point that Hare is trying to press in this connection is that we should try to avoid the kind of mistake that many people commit, namely to confuse a speech act of one kind with a speech act of a different kind. Thus, when we wish to determine the truth conditions of a moral statement like, "X is good", we do not analyze it by virtue of expressing my approval for X but by virtue of stating that I, as a matter of psychological fact, approve of it. For it is one thing to express a feeling, make a request or issue a command and quite another to state that I am expressing a feeling, to state that I 15 making a request or to state that I am issuing a command.

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