Flow Visualization by Wolfgang Merzkirch (Auth.)

By Wolfgang Merzkirch (Auth.)

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Until one arrives on the acidic side of the end point. The lifetime of this solution can be several months; but the solution will decompose rapidly if one uses nondistilled water instead. Owing to the electrolytic reaction hydrogen is produced at the cathode: Positive hydrogen ions migrate to the cathode; they give up their charge to the negative electrode and there combine to form H2 molecules. The solution therefore exhibits an excess of OH ions near the cathode and is thus alkaline. The color of the pH indicator rapidly turns from yellow to blue in a small regime adjacent to the electrode.

The general answer is no. But in some cases, the difference between particle and fluid speed can be very small, and one might obtain very reasonable experimental results. We shall therefore first study the motion of a single particle which has been introduced in a fluid flow. From this we may obtain an impression of the accuracy of such flow velocity measurements. Subsequent to this flow analysis, the generation and the use of particles for certain flow cases is reported, followed by a review of observation and recording systems.

The observation time is smaller in turbulent flows Ill. The Hydrogen-Bubble Technique 43 partly insulated wire 22a 12221 flow L221 ~ @~ ill~ hydrogen bubbles Fig. 20 Schematic representation of the combined time-streak marker technique. owing to a rapid turbulent diffusion of the bubbles. For this reason, the application of the method is limited to low-speed flows with velocities smaller than 30 em/sec in water. The hydrogen bubbles move in the wake of the generating wire, and the greatest allowable flow velocity is determined by the Reynolds number at which this wake flow becomes unsteady and subsequently turbulent.

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