Engineering handbook for HVAC
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Extra resources for Engineering Manual of Automatic Control (for Commercial Buildings, Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning)
Change in setpoint x 100 Change in compensation input For proportional controllers, the throttling range (TR) is included in the equation. Two equations are required when the throttling range is included. For direct-acting or positive reset, in which the setpoint increases as the compensation input increases, the equation is: Authority = PROPORTIONAL-INTEGRAL (PI) CONTROL In the proportional-integral (PI) control mode, reset of the control point is automatic. PI control, also called “proportionalplus-reset” control, virtually eliminates offset and makes the proportional band nearly invisible.
The error ramp time determines the time duration during which the PID error (setpoint minus input) is slowly ramped, linear to the ramp time, into the PID controller. The controller thus arrives at setpoint in a tangential manner without overshoot, undershoot, or cycling. See Figure 41. ACTUATOR POSITION PERCENT OPEN 100 PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS As pumps and fans distribute the control agent throughout the building, an HVAC system exhibits several characteristics that must be understood in order to apply the proper control mode to a particular building system.
In practice, however, one or more auxiliary devices are often necessary. , from pneumatic to electric), relays and switches to manipulate signals, electric power and compressed air supplies to power the control system, and indicating devices to facilitate monitoring of control system activity. C2087 Fig. 55. Typical Pneumatic Damper Actuator. 34 ENGINEERING MANUAL OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL CONTROL FUNDAMENTALS CHARACTERISTICS AND ATTRIBUTES OF CONTROL METHODS Review the columns of Table 4 to determine the characteristics and attributes of pneumatic, electric, electronic, and microprocessor control methods.