Ecological Methods: With Particular Reference to the Study by T. R. E. Southwood D.SC., PH.D., F.R.S. (auth.)

By T. R. E. Southwood D.SC., PH.D., F.R.S. (auth.)

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8) where ns = the number of samples within the habitat unit (calculated as above), s/ = variance within the habitat unit, sp 2 = variance between the habitat unit ( = interplant variance), x = mean per sample (calculated from the transformed data and given in this form and E as above. 9) 22 Sampling and Dispersion where k = the dispersion parameter of the negative binomial (see below). When the confidence limits are used as the predetermined standard, the required half-width is usually set at 10 %of the mean.

2. and TORII, T, 1970. A Handbook of Field Methodsfor Research on Rice StemBorers and their Natural Enemies. P. , Blackwells, Oxford. , 1934. A manual of entomological equipment and methods. Pt 1. , Ann Arbor. SCHULTZ, V, 1961. An annotated bibliography on the uses of statistics in ecologysearch of 31 periodicals. S. Atom. Energy Comm. Off tech. Inf. TID 3908. ,1976. Mosquito Ecology: Field Sampling Techniques. Applied Science Publishers, London. 1 Planning and field work As it is normally impossible to count all the invertebrates in a habitat, it is necessary to estimate the population by sampling; naturally the estimates should have the highest accuracy commensurate with the amount of work expended, and if this is to be so a sampling programme which lays down the distribution, size and number of samples will need to be drawn up.

From preliminary sampling the variances of each of the different units (s u2 ) can be calculated; these should then be computed to a common basis, which is often conveniently the size of the smallest unit. For example if the smallest unit is I ft of row, then the variance of 2 ft row unit will be divided by 2 and those of 4 ft by 4. The costs will similarly be reduced to a common basis (C u). Then the relative net cost for the same precision for each unit will be proportional to: C u su 2 where Cu=cost per unit on a common basis and s} =variance per unit on a common basis.

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