By Brian C. Lockey
Early glossy Catholics, Royalists, and Cosmopolitans considers how the marginalized standpoint of 16th-century English Catholic exiles and 17th-century English royalist exiles helped to generate a sort of cosmopolitanism that was once rooted in modern non secular and nationwide identities but in addition transcended these identities.
Author Brian C. Lockey argues that English discourses of nationhood have been in dialog with opposing 'cosmopolitan' views, one who sought to domesticate and maintain the rising English nationalism and imperialism and one other that challenged English nationhood from the viewpoint of these Englishmen who seen the dominion as one province in the better transnational Christian commonwealth.
Lockey illustrates how the latter cosmopolitan viewpoint, produced inside groups of exiled English topics, separated in time through part a century, encouraged fiction writers corresponding to Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Anthony Munday, Sir John Harington, John Milton, and Aphra Behn. finally, he exhibits that early smooth cosmopolitans critiqued the rising discourse of English nationhood from a standard non secular and political point of view, while their writings ultimately gave upward thrust to later secular Enlightenment varieties of cosmopolitanism.
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According to Mignolo, Vitoria’s relectiones presented a challenge to the universal “ideology of possession enjoined by the pope and the [Holy Roman] emperor,” which Vitoria sought to replace with his own “proposal in favor of Vitoria, Relectio de Indis [On the American Indians], 286–92. “quod jus gentium non solum habet vim ex pacto et condicto inter homines, sed etiam habet vim legis. Habet enim totus orbis, qui aliquo modo est una respublica, potestate ferendi leges aequas et convenientes omnibus, quales sunt in jure gentium.
Habet enim totus orbis, qui aliquo modo est una respublica, potestate ferendi leges aequas et convenientes omnibus, quales sunt in jure gentium. Ex quo patet, quod mortaliter pecant violantes jura gentium, sive in pace, sive in bello, in rebus tamen, gravioribus, ut est de incolumitate legatorum. ” Vitoria, De potestate civili, in Relectiones de Francisco de Vitoria, vol. 2, 207. English translation from Vitoria, Relectio de potestate civili [On Civil Power], in Political Writings, 40. 117 Mignolo, “Many Faces of Cosmopolis,” 166.
But rather than admonishing her, he offers to vacate his office: “If it be your Majesty’s Cecil, Execution of Justice in England, C3–C3v. Tutino, Law and Conscience, 16. 88 Cited in Apologia Ecclsiae Anglicanae, in Works of John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, ed. Rev. John Ayre (Cambridge, 1850), vol. 6, 207. 89 Apologia Ecclsiae Anglicanae, in Works of John Jewel, vol. 6, 207. ”90 Ultimately, the crown did take measures to suspend Grindal from his office, though he was able to retain his spiritual authority, and he remained sequestered until his death in 1583.