Byzantium and the Crusader States 1096-1204 by Ralph-Johannes Lilie

By Ralph-Johannes Lilie

This can be the 1st scholarly background of the family among Byzantium and the Crusader States of Syria and Palestine. Ralph-Johannes Lilie units out to discover the guidelines and rules which formed contacts among the jap Empire, the Crusader States, and the international locations of Western Europe whilst the Crusaders got here. initially released to a lot acclaim in German, Byzantium and the Crusader States has been revised through the writer for the English version and awarded in a lucid and scholarly translation.

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1 a n d 2 . S e e a lso referen ces in n o te 22 above. 3 1 . D e m o s th e n e s, T h e E rotic E ssay, tra n s. N . W. D ew itt and N . J. D ew itt (C a m ­ bridge, M A : H arvard U n iv ersity P ress, 1949). 3 2 . P lato’s p rc fc r c n c c for tra n s ccn d cn cc beyond sex u al d esire is to be found m o st e xp licitly in S o c ra te s's ren d itio n of D io tim a 's te a ch in g in th e S y m p o siu m , 2 0 1 d -2 1 2 c ; a lso in th e g en era l th em e o f t h e P h aed o; and in th e L a w s V III.

2 7 7 - 7 9 . "19 T h e story ends w ith political crisis: T h e apparent freeing of sex from institutional constraints fails to gain a stable consensus, and contem porary political controversy shows ju st how vulnerable the sexual sphere is to conflict, confusion, and m anipulation. "20 Posner relies heavily on econom ic analysis both to describe th e practice of sex and to evaluate legal and ethical norm s in its regard. T h ere are, he argues, three stages in th e evolu­ tion of sexual morality, and they correlate w ith the statu s of women in a given society.

T h e laws o f o n a h , in regulating a m an's sexual obligations to his wife, revealed som e of th e m ost affirmative attitudes of Judaism to ­ ward sexuality. Although formulated in a patriarchal context (hence, they were male-defined), they aimed to take account of women's needs and to protect w om en's interests. Since it was believed that wom en, being more passive than m en, would n ot initiate sex with the sam e freedom as m en, husbands were adm onished to consider and respond to n ot only their own desires and im pulses, but those of their wives.

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