Basic Concepts in Turbomachinery

This textbook is meant to counterpoint present litterature through offering extra element on a number of the very fundamentals features of ways turbomachinery operates.

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That found by viewing from the moving rotor and that found by viewing from outside the rotor where there is no motion. 5. The methodology for this is as follows: 1. Draw the flow that you know 2. Draw the blade speed 3. Close the triangle with the remaining vector 4. Check that the key rule applies: V = U + W This methodology is important and we will refer to elsewhere as the “four step rule”. So for station 2 the flow that we know is the absolute velocity at exit from the stator, V . This is the flow that we know, recall from Chapter 1 that the flow follows the metal angle of the blades so if with a sketch of the stator the absolute velocity may be drawn directly.

Machines such as wind turbines and low speed fans fall outside this classification system as although the fluid is compressible in practise the changes in density are minimal so they can belong to either category. The classification of machine by flow direction is more complex, essentially if the flow direction is roughly along the direction of the axis of the machine the device is called an “axial” machine but if the flow direction turns and has a component substantially in the radial direction the machine is know variously as a “radial” or “centrifugal” machine.

2: 3D View of the Radial Impeller volute as the radius increases (An analysis of this can be found in Chapter 10) for large pressure rises it is necessary to put in a stator row to control this process. 1 in context. 2 are what is known as radial blades, that is no part of them operate in the axial-tangential plane. The impeller as a whole is therefore sometimes called a “radial impeller”. 3 here the blades extend from the radial direction until they also have an axial component. 3: Centrifugal Impeller widely used in small gas turbines such as the auxiliary power unit found on most aeroplanes and centrifugal designs and are used exclusively for turbochargers on internal combustion engines.

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