By Richard W. Hamming
Powerful pondering is an paintings that engineers and scientists might be taught to strengthen. this article offers the reader with a mode of pondering that might increase a person's skill to operate as a problem-solver of complicated technical issues.
summary: powerful considering is an paintings that engineers and scientists will be taught to increase. this article offers the reader with a mode of pondering that may improve a person's skill to operate as a problem-solver of complicated technical concerns
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Extra resources for The art of doing science and engineering : learning to learn
They can classify objects into classes which are reasonable, again without being told what classes are to be used or found. They learn with simple feedback which uses the information that the result computed from an input is not acceptable. In a way they represent a solution to “the programming problem”—once they are built they are really not programmed at all, but still they can solve a wide variety of problems satisfactorily. They are a coming field which I shall have to skip in this book, but they will probably play a large part in the future of computers.
The software of the utility programs of computers has been done often enough, and is so limited in scope, so it might reasonably be expected to become “engineered”, but the general software preparation is not likely to be under “engineering control” for many, many years. There are many proposals on how to improve the productivity of the individual programmer as well as groups of programmers. I have already mentioned top-down and bottom-up; there are others such a head programmer, lead programmer, proving the program is correct in a mathematical sense, and the waterfall model of programming to name but a few.
In time electric motors were applied both for power and later for more automatic control over multiplication and division. The punch card machines were controlled by plug board wiring to tell the machine where to find the information, what to do with it, and where to put the answers on the cards (or on the printed sheet of a tabulator), but some of the control might also come from the cards themselves, typically X and Y punches (other digits could, at times, control what happened). A plug board was specially wired for each job to be done, and in an accounting office the wired boards were usually saved and used again each week, or month, as they were needed in the cycle of accounting.