Aerodynamics for Engineering Students by E. Houghton, P. Carpenter

By E. Houghton, P. Carpenter

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13). If the flow is inviscid, it can be shown that the flow speed at the trailing edge is zero, implying that the pressure coefficient is +l. But in a real flow (see Fig. 13a) the body plus the boundary-layer displacement thickness has a finite width at the trailing edge, so the flow speed does not fall to zero, and therefore the pressure coefficient is less than +l. The variation of coefficient of pressure due to real flow around an aerofoil is shown in Fig. 13b. This combines to generate a net drag as follows.

This may not apply to certain guided missiles that have no obvious top or bottom, and the exact meaning of ‘up’ must then be defined with care. Drag, D(-X) This is the component of force acting in the opposite direction to the line of flight, or in the same direction as the motion of the undisturbed stream. It is the force that resists the motion of the aircraft. There is no ambiguity regarding its direction or sense. e. in a spanwise direction. It is reckoned positive when acting towards the starboard (right-hand to the pilot) wing-tip.

Thus a cambered section has the same value of C L as does its thickness distribution, but this occurs at a smaller incidence. Modern, thin, sharp-nosed sections display a slightly different characteristic to the above, as shown in Fig. 24. In this case, the lift curve has two approximately straight portions, of different slopes. The slope of the lower portion is almost the same as that for a thicker section but, at a moderate incidence, the slope takes a different, smaller value, leading to a smaller value of CL, typically of the order of unity.

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